MR: Quantification (PISA)


1.Proximal Isovelocity Hemispheric Radius from the Orifice?
2.Aliasing Velocity at the Radial Distance r?
3.Peak Velocity of the MR Jet?
4.VTI of the MR Jet?


The PISA method, based on the principle of conservation of flow and the continuity equation, is the best method for quantifying the ERO and the volume of MR.


Oh J, Seward JB, Tajik AJ.

The Echo Manual 3rd edition. Lippincott, Williams, Wilkins. 2007

Enriquez-Sarano M et al.

Effective mitral regurgitant orifice area: clinical use and pitfalls of the proximal isovelocity surface area method.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology 1995 March 1, 25 (3): 703-9

Utsonomiya T et al.

Doppler color flow “proximal isovelocity surface area” method for estimating volume flow rate: effect of orifice shape and machine factors. JACC 1991; 17; 1103

Zoghbi WA et al.

Recommendations for evaluation of the severity of native valvular regurgitation with two-dimensional Doppler Echocardiography.

Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 2003, 16 (7): 777-802

The MR: Quantification (PISA) calculator is created by QxMD.

Created by on 28/12/2015

By using this site you acknowledge that you have read, understand, and agree to be bound by our terms of use and privacy policy. All content and tools are for educational use only, are not meant to be a substitute for professional advice and should not be used for medical diagnosis and/or medical treatment.

1. Proximal Isovelocity Hemispheric Radius from the Orifice?

0/4 completed